Epidemiological Transition is considered to a phase of development in human life brought out by a sudden increase in population growth because of ongoing medical innovations in diseases, therapy, and treatment. A leveling effect generally follows this in the population growth rates from declines in procreation rates. The first phase of transition is mainly brought on by effective vaccines and other treatments of infectious diseases.
A decline in Death rates
This, as a result, leads to a decline in death rates and infant mortality rates, which leads to an increase in the overall population. The second transition is bought on by a drop in birth rates and a return to normality as there is no global population growth. This theory was initially proposed by Abdel R Omran.
These transitions occur as countries undergo a change in lifestyle brought on by modernization. This is often considered as a transition from the third world to the first-world status. Developing and underdeveloped countries are known to have a higher rate of infectious diseases because the standards of medical care present in these countries are not comparable to the care present in economically developed countries.
Increase in Infant mortality rate
This results in an increase in infant mortality rate and overall death rate. Still, since the birth rates are incredibly high, the total population growth is more or less constant or keeps increasing steadily.
Human history registers two epidemiological transition patterns. The first transition is said to occur as the human population departs from their cyclic, linear, and up-down patterns usually caused by epidemic outbreaks, wars, famines, as well as other causes that are restricted to a particular area or period. The dramatic decline in death rates is brought on by significant changes in lifestyle and advancements in medical care.
The discovery of the penicillin in the 20th century has led to a widespread decline in death rates caused by infectious diseases, and to a transition to widespread chronic acquired degenerative diseases as a primary cause of late-age death, in the developed and economically advantaged world.
The second transition
The second transition is known to occur when human birth rates decline as the need for physical labor decreases. This transition is complicated, and several social and geographical causes are responsible for this. Economics also plays its part since the level of medical care present in a country is mainly dependent on the economy of that country.
Many developed and developing nations have seen a consequent decrease in their population growth rates because of the drastic decline in infant mortality rates and death rates of youth, practice of safe sex, sex education, and birth control methods.
These transitions describe a more general application of theory to the development of human life entirely and can be applied to the current developing nations too. A plethora of factors chalks particular countries’ growth. This is because each country has a specific grouping of people, and their development is unique.
Not all groups go through the same transitions; that being said; statistically, these transitions have a higher chance of happening. All these factors give us an insight as to how changes in the environment and other factors can affect epidemiology.